Featured Article

NOT gate or inverter

NOT gate is a logic gate circuit which performs NOT operation on input. Its output logic level is always opposite to input. In other words NOT gate inverts its input. Unlike AND and OR gates NOT gate always has single input. NOT gate symbol Truth table for NOT operation Figure below shows a NOT gate… Read the rest
Featured Article

Photoelectric Effect

Application of photoelectric effect is everywhere around us. Digital camera, light meter in playground, solar panel, night vision device and many things are made using photoelectric effect. Albert Einstein is famous for his special theory of relativity. But he received his Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect not for his special theory of relativity.… Read the rest
Featured Article

Uncertainty principle

Werner Heisenberg Werner Heisenberg Uncertainty principle was proposed by German physicist Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) was born in Duisberg, Germany. He studied theoretical physics at Munich, received Nobel Prize in 1932. He stayed in Germany during Second World War and led research for nuclear weapon project. A gunman was sent by United… Read the rest
Featured Article

De Broglie Hypothesis

Louis de Broglie French physicist Louis de Broglie proposed this hypothesis. It was a ground breaking hypothesis in fact. Earlier Louis de Broglie was a student of history, later he built his career in physics. He proposed this famous theory in his PhD thesis in 1924 (some people think the year was 1923). Newton thought… Read the rest
Featured Article

Mass energy relation in Chemistry

When we hear something about mass energy relation, we imagine the power of a nuclear bomb. It’s correct, when nuclei split into two or three parts it loses mass and that mass is converted into energy. Mass energy relation is one of the consequences of Einstein’s theory of relativity. In fact the famous E=mc2   Read the rest

Content Marketing

The main philosophy of content marketing is you give something valuable for free to your potential customers. Actually content marketing is a type of inbound marketing. In broader sense there are two types of marketing: inbound marketing and outbound marketing. Traditional marketing strategies are known as outbound marketing. Outbound marketing may be annoying for customers.… Read the rest

Basic logic gates

In any digital electronics textbook you will find description on various logic operations and different logic gates; e.g. AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR and XNOR. But AND, OR and NOT these three gates are known as basic gates. Because you can design any other logic gates or digital electronics circuits using only these three… Read the rest

Electronic and electric

Sometimes these two words are confusing for many of us. As we know electricity is flow of electrons, what is the distinction between the two; where a transistor or a diode also allows the flow of electrons? In simple words electronics is a branch of engineering where current through vacuum tube, gas tube or semiconductor… Read the rest

Phone charger as a power source of logic gate experiment

We know minimum 5V DC is required for logic gate ICs. I do use an old phone charger as the power supply for simple logic gate experiments. Usually phone charger output is 5V DC. I think you can also try it, if you want to do simple logic gate experiments at low cost. You can… Read the rest

Moisture checker circuit for rooftop garden

This is a simple hobby circuit that will make youngsters familiar with electronic circuits and components. It’s possible to monitor moisture condition of soil in a tub with electronic circuit to decide whether more water is needed or not. The variable resistor of this circuit makes forward bias of the transistor, which turns the LED… Read the rest


Almost every mobile phones, mobile communication devices and satellite phones have a unique number which is called International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. This number is used to identify a specific device. If the device is stolen, it’s possible to blacklist that device so that it can’t be used in any network. It is possible… Read the rest

Exclusive NOR or XNOR gate

In the exclusive OR or XOR gate section we have seen how XOR gate works and how simple it is. Exclusive NOR or XNOR gate is also like a XOR gate, the only difference is we put a NOT logic in the output of a XOR gate and XOR gate becomes a XNOR gate. That… Read the rest

Quantum theory

Suppose you are hitting a ball with a bat and then using Newtonian or classical mechanics you can tell how long the ball will stay on air, how far it will go and trajectory of the ball. Even you can calculate at which speed the ball will hit the ground. To answer all the questions… Read the rest

When people’s teeth exploded like bomb

Yes, there is enough evidence that many people’s teeth exploded like bomb in their mouth. It was in 19th century and it’s still a mystery; no one knows why it happened. The dental cosmos was the first major journal for American dentists, in this journal a Pennsylvania dentist WH Atkinson documented an outbreak of… Read the rest